• +86-021-56880580
  • benny.xu.jianmo@gmail.com


Operations is an interesting thing.

Operations is an interesting thing.

As one of the most popular job functions in the Internet industry, it is often referred to as a "metaphysical".
On the one hand, its status is getting higher and higher. On the other hand, it seems so vague that few people can really say what an "operation" is.
In retrospect, the emergence of the "operation" job, in fact, was just a dozen years ago.
In a sense, we like to believe that if you don't know enough about the past, it must be hard for you to really understand the present and the future.
We suspect it would be interesting and valuable to take a hard look back at the history of "operations" in the Internet world.

So what exactly is "operation"?
I found that in the existing Internet world, the specific work contents contained in the scope of "operation" are extremely complex: promotion and launch, activity planning, content production, data monitoring, user management, customer service. A lot of content seems to fit into it, and almost every Internet practitioner known as an "operation" carries more than one job on his or her back.
The goal is ultimately to "connect products with users better."Further, there are two purposes here, one is to be able to attract users and make user have an intention to pay; The second is to better maintain these users, so that they are willing to have a continuous relationship with you.
And all the specific work around these two purposes to develop, can be regarded as a means of operation. Moreover, a reliable operation must be able to understand and master a variety of operational means -- which is completely different from the state in traditional industries.
But how did such a complex and varied and sometimes somewhat broad function come about?
We are also concerned about the change in perception of the concept of "operation" in the minds of industry practitioners.
At the beginning of the birth of the Internet, there was no such function as "operation".
The first posts that appeared closest to the current "operation" were "web editor" and "administrator of community BBS", followed by various network promotion.
The concept of "operating" originally about molding in around 2001, and in the true sense "operating" such a concept and the function in the Internet circles began to gradually becomes widespread, from about 2004, beginning around 2005 - starting stage. At that time, a large number of Internet companies, including Sina, in the "edit" began to be known as the "content", like "community".
1984-1993:The Birth of the Internet

Few people know that the first large-scale exchange of information between people through the "Internet" was around 1984.
That year, a BBS program called "FidoNet" appeared in the United States.Users connect via phone lines and forward letters point-to-point.Huiduo net is the first BBS network in the world.
Seven years later, the "Great Wall" station of Huiduo network in China was opened. At that time, almost all those who went to the "Great Wall" station were Chinese students who had dialed long distance from overseas to return to China, as well as some domestic cutting-edge technology enthusiasts.At that time "Great Wall" station, already had the figure such as Ma Huateng, Ding Lei.
Since 1993, with the increasing number of PC users and the development of many related technologies, "Internet" began to grow crazily like weeds in the United States on the other side of the ocean without warning, and such Internet companies as netscape and yahoo were born successively.
The spectacle on the other side of the ocean is undoubtedly breathtaking.Thus, from 1995, the wind of the Internet came to China and began to take root.
1994-1997:What is the Internet?

Number of Internet users: less than 300,000.
Internet representative products: portal, early BBS.
Representative operation jobs: network editor, BBS administrator.
For the older generation of Internet users and Internet insiders, one thing that is less controversial is that the starting point of China's Internet development was the appearance of a company called Yinghaiwei on Zhongguancun street before 1995.Probably what people will never forget is the classic advertisement of Yinghaiwei in those days -- "how far are Chinese people from the information superhighway? 1500 metres north."
1998-2001:The First Trend?
Number of Internet users: from 1 million to 20 million
Representative products of the Internet: chat room, more mature BBS, QQ, all kinds of download sites
Representative operations: online promotion, community management
If there is a milestone to be defined for the development of the early Internet in China, 1998 is perhaps the most appropriate year. Taking this as a node, the development of Internet in China ushered in its first outbreak and blowout lasting 3-4 years, and ushered in its first spring.
The first two things that deserve our attention in 1998 are:
In June 1998, Microsoft's Windows98 operating system was released, which for the first time fully integrated with Internet standards.The evolution and updating of operating systems has paved the way for more families and individuals to be able to access the Internet.
Also in 1998, ISDN began to gain popularity in China as a faster way to access the Internet than "dial-up modem". 26 provincial capitals began to open ISDN.
The significance of these two events for China's Internet is similar to that of a small village where only mud roads can reach the outside world.
As a result, we can also see that around this year, a lot of significant events happened on the Internet.
2001-2005: Traffic is the king of the era and the emergence of "operation"
Number of Internet users: 22 million to 103 million
Representative products of the Internet: Baidu, hao123, various mandatory installation plug-ins, tomato garden, Taobao, online games
Representative operations: SEO/SEM, traffic distribution, QQ group management, E-commerce operations
In the Internet world between 2001 and 2005, several things happened that should not be ignored.They're going to be --
The rise and popularity of online games;
The rapid development of e-commerce led by Taobao;
2005-2009: Operation in the Web 2.0 age -- Rising of "users"
Number of Internet users: 103 million to 384 million
Representative products of Internet: blog, wiki, video website, P2P download, BBS, SNS
Representative operation jobs: network pusher, BBS marketing, event marketing and communication
Around the middle of the decade, a concept began to take off again in the Internet community, sweeping the world, and that was "Web 2.0."
The so-called Web2.0, can be simply understood as "user-led content generation Internet product model", in order to distinguish from "company and website employees led content generation product model", called Web2.0.The latter, of course, is Web 1.0.
2009-2013:The operation of Weibo era and Mobile Internet
Number of Internet users: 384 million to 618 million
Representative products of the Internet: various apps, Weibo, Zhihu, WeChat, group purchase
Typical operation jobs: Weibo operation, social media marketing, and various APP promotion
Starting from 2009, another key inflection point of Chinese Internet began to come.
In the second half of 2008, with the release of the iPhone3G and the announcement of the opening of the App Store, and the release of Google's Android operating system, people began to realize that the era of mobile Internet has come.
Since then, China's Internet has ushered in another magnificent era -- the so-called "mobile Internet era".
2013 - NowConnect everything with the Internet and Operations
Internet users: 618 million to 710 million
Representative Internet products: WeChat, various O2O products, Didi  and other we-media
Typical operation jobs: new media operation, community operation, Weibo operation, social media marketing, and various APP promotion
After entering 2013, the user growth rate of the whole Internet world began to slow down significantly. According to the data of CNNIC, the number of Internet users only increased by 100 million in the three years from 2013 to 2016, becoming the slowest user growth period in the 20 years since the birth of the Internet in China.
Within any one market, when the absolute number of users have less obvious growth space, all the focus of the competition and PK will start to double, or is opening up new battlefield, or doing more on the basis of the original "fine," grab and touch more frequent users of scenes, this is the eternal law.
At the same time, with the widespread popularity of smart phones, people begin to have a terminal device that can help them connect to the Internet anytime and anywhere, which makes people begin to have the possibility of "connecting everything" for the first time.
From this period, there began to be talk of "Internet plus", which allows the Internet to connect to more than just information, such as services.
From 2013 to 2016, a wave of O2O start-ups appeared in the domestic Internet industry, and a large number of companies like Didi and Meituan grew up from them and became giants with a new valuation of tens of billions of dollars.
The emergence of many O2O startups are really full pull "operating" competition from online to offline, in the same period, due to the fierce competition and the user time, attention and other increasingly scarce, for users to access the O2O firms, a one-dimensional "online promotion and dissemination of" has significant no matter use, a more common practice is to push + online offline promotion + PR communication such as land, sea and air in parallel, the only way, to have better results.